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Martingale collars (also called limited-slip collars) are usually made of flat nylon with a smaller fixed-length section (made of either nylon or a short length of chain) that, when pulled on by the leash, shortens up tightening the collar around the dog's neck, to a limited extent. When properly fitted, martingales are looser than flat-buckle collars when not tightened, and less severely corrective than slip collars when tightened.

  "It would be more ingenuous, and more worthy of my brother's daughter,"said her uncle, coldly, "if she ascribed her willingness to depart toits proper motive." Disregarding the look of deep distress with whichCecilia received this mortifying rejection of her tender attention, theold man on receiving this order, rushed into the room in a medley; but,notwithstanding the surly glances, and savage characters of their dressand equipments, they struck no blow, nor committed any act of hostility.The ladies shrank back appalled, as this terrific little band tookpossession of the hall; and even Borroughcliffe was seen to fallback towards a door which, in some measure, covered his retreat. Theconfusion of this sudden movement had not yet subsided, when soundsof strife were heard rapidly approaching from a distant part of thebuilding, and presently one of the numerous doors of the apartment wasviolently opened, when two of the garrison of the abbey rushed into thehall, vigorously pressed by twice their number of seamen, seconded byGriffith, Manual, and Merry, who were armed with such weapons ofoffence as had presented themselves to their hands, at their unexpectedliberation. There was a movement on the part of the seamen who werealready in possession of the room, that threatened instant death tothe fugitives; but Barnstable beat down their pikes with his sword, andsternly ordered them to fall back. Surprise produced the same pacificresult among the combatants; and as the soldiers hastily sought arefuge behind their own officers, and the released captives, with theirliberators, joined the body of their friends, the quiet of the hall,which had been so rudely interrupted, was soon restored.


Obedience training usually refers to the training of a dog and the term is most commonly used in that context. Obedience training ranges from very basic training, such as teaching the dog to reliably respond to basic commands such as "sit," "down," "come," and "stay," to high level competition within clubs such as the American Kennel Club, United Kennel Club and the Canadian Kennel Club, where additional commands, accuracy and performance are scored and judged.
Any area that the pup has access to must be kept clear and clean. Put out of puppy's reach anything you don't want him to chew or destroy. Do not allow your puppy to have unsupervised access to 'unchewables.' Do not chase the puppy in an attempt to take something away. Instead provide puppy with her own toys and teach her how to play with them exclusively.

Dog training classes or private sessions can also be an addition to your own training program. The dog trainer can help you improve the program and customize it to your dog's learning style. Try to be as involved as possible when it comes to your dog's training. You and your dog will be a stronger team when you are directly involved in the training process.
No breed is impossible to obedience train, but novice owners might find training some breeds quite difficult. The capacity to learn basic obedience—and even complicated behavior—is inherent in all dogs. Some breeds may require more patience or creativity in training than others. Individual dogs that exhibit fearful or anxious behaviors should also be handled with greater care, and especially not trained using harsh corrective methods, as this training can be psychologically harmful to the dog and result in further behavioral issues.[3][4]

You may also notice common behavior problems in your dog such as jumping up, barking, or even aggression. The best way to correct any misbehavior is to interrupt it. Shift your dog's attention to something positive. Try running through cues that your dog has mastered followed by rewards. Keep your demeanor cool and confident, and be clear about what you mean.
In competition, merely sitting, lying down, or walking on a leash are insufficient. The dog and handler must perform the activities off leash and in a highly stylized and carefully defined manner. For example, on a recall, the dog must come directly to the handler, without sniffing or veering to one side, and must sit straight in front of the handler, not at an angle or off to one side or the other. Training for obedience competitions builds on basic obedience training.
  "Ha!" exclaimed Borroughcliffe, grasping a pistol, with an air ofgreat resolution, "the work thickens--I had not included this man inmy estimate of their numbers. Is he a Samson, that his single arm canchange the face of things so suddenly! Down with your own weapon, youmasquerader! or, at the report of this pistol, your body shall be made atarget for twenty bullets."
With your dog sitting at your side, set off and give the command “heel” (so that your dog is aware you are about to move). If the dog gets ahead, stop and encourage it back to your side with a titbit. Repeat. To begin with, stop every three to four paces to praise your dog and give a titbit. Do not use your voice unless your dog is at your side. You can also practise this off-lead in a secure area – this makes you work really hard at keeping your dog with you, rather than relying on the lead.
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